Posts Tagged ‘cmdlet’

Troubleshooting vSphere Guest Operations API

October 4, 2019

What is vSphere Guest Operations

Recently I’ve been heavily utilizing vSphere Guest Operations API for automating vCenter patching. vSphere Guest Operations (GuestOps) is an API, which allows you to run commands on a virtual machine without needing to connect to it over the network. All you need is credentials to the vCenter managing the virtual machine and to the virtual machine itself.

GuestOps can be called by using an Invoke-VMScript PowerCLI cmdlet in the following format:

> Invoke-VMScript -ScriptText “uname -a” -vm vc01 -GuestUser root -GuestPassword VMware1!

Cmdlet will talk to the vCenter, vCenter will talk to ESXi host, ESXi host will talk to VMware Tools and, eventually, VMware Tools will run the command on the Guest OS.

It worked well for me when I was running commands on VCSA 6.0 VM (managed by another vCenter), but after patching and upgrading this VM to VCSA 6.7 I encountered the following error:

Error occured while executing script on guest OS in VM ‘vc01’. Could not locate “Powershell” script interpreter in any of the expected locations. Probably you do not have enough permissions to execute command within guest.

It’s obvious from the error message that cmdlet is doing something wrong, since it’s supposed to use bash in Linux, not PowerShell.

Enable Debugging in VMware Tools

To better understand what was going on, I logged in to VCSA via SSH and enabled VMware Tools debugging (see KB1007873 for instructions on how to do that) and restarted Open VM Tools:

# systemctl restart vmtoolsd.service

After running the Invoke-VMScript cmdlet again, this is what I noticed in vmsvc.log debug log:

[vix] VixTools_StartProgram: User: root args: progamPath: ‘cmd.exe’, arguments: ‘/C powershell -NonInteractive -EncodedCommand cABvAHcAZQByAHMAaABl…

So it wasn’t just a misleading PowerCLI error message, Invoke-VMScript was actually trying to call a PowerShell command using Windows command interpreter on a Linux VM.


My guess is that since VMware has changed underlying operating system on VCSA from SUSE Linux to Photon OS, Invoke-VMScript can no longer properly identify the underlying OS and defaults to Windows.

Simple solution to this problem is to give a helping hand to Invoke-VMScript cmdlet and specify interpreter using -ScriptType Bash parameter. This is what a proper resulting debug log message will look like:

[vix] VixToolsStartProgramImpl: started ‘”/bin/bash” -c “bash > /tmp/vmware-root/powerclivmware159 2>&1 -c \”uname -a\””‘, pid 7456

NSX Optimistic Locking and PowerNSX

August 3, 2019

Recently, when working on some NSX-V automation, I came across an interesting issue, which I want to discuss here, since there’s almost no information on the Internet (while I’m writing this), that would help to solve it or even point you in the right direction. It has to do with PowerNSX and Optimistic Locking in NSX (which technically is not even a locking mechanism), but let’s start from the beginning.

If you ever used PowerNSX module to automate NSX via PowerShell you noticed that most of the code examples use pipelines to run PowerNSX cmdlets. So instead of using variables, like so:

$Edge = Get-NsxEdge vRA7 _ edge
$LoadBalancer = Get-NsxLoadBalancer -Edge $Edge
Set-NsxLoadBalancer -LoadBalancer $LoadBalancer -enabled
New-NsxLoadBalancerApplicationProfile -LoadBalancer $LoadBalancer -Name $WebAppProfileName -Type $VipProtocol –SslPassthrough

all commands are run this way instead:

Get-NsxEdge vRA7_edge | Get-NsxLoadBalancer | Set-NsxLoadBalancer -enabled
Get-NsxEdge vRA7_dge | Get-NsxLoadBalancer | New-NsxLoadBalancerApplicationProfile -Name $WebAppProfileName -Type $VipProtocol –SslPassthrough

What’s the difference you may ask, besides the fact the the second variant is slower, because you retrieve edge and load balancer objects multiple times, instead of once, compared to the first variant? There’s actually a strong reason for it. More specifically, it is the following error that you gonna get if you don’t use pipelines:

invoke-nsxwebrequest : Invoke-NsxWebRequest : The NSX API response received indicates a failure. 409 : Conflict : Response Body: {“errorCode”:101, “details”:”Concurrent object access error. Refresh UI or fetch the latest copy of the object and retry the operation.”, “rootCauseString”:null, “moduleName”:null, “errorData”:null}

See, NSX uses Optimistic Locking (yes, there’s Pessimistic Locking as well) to handle concurrency. Its purpose is to make sure that if you’re making a change to an object in NSX you are aware of its current state. In the above example, you saved load balancer into a variable, changed the load balancer state to enabled and then tried to create an application profile, supplying load balancer saved in a variable as a parameter to the cmdlet. But the load balancer (and edge) state has changed and you’re basically using an old (stale) version of the object. You either have to retrieve the current state of the object again or avoid this issue all together by simply using pipelines and retrieve the up-to-date version of the object with every call.

Read this article if you want to know more about Optimistic Locking:

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