Posts Tagged ‘consistent’

AWS Cloud Protection Manager Part 3: Backup and Restore

August 21, 2017

Backup

Backups are created according to the schedule specified in the backup policy. We discussed how to configure backup policies in the previous blog post of the series. The list of backups you see on the Backup Monitor tab are your restore points. Backups that are older then the specified retention policy will be purged from the list and you will not see them there, unless you move them to “Freezer”.

It is important to understand that apart from volume snapshots, for each backed up instance CPM also creates an AMI. Those who has hands-on experience with AWS may already know, that AMIs is the only way to create clones of Windows EC2 instances in AWS. If you go to AWS console and try to find a clone action under the instance Action menu, you won’t find any. You will have “Create Image” instead. It creates an AMI, from which you can then spin up a clone of an instance the image was created from.

CPM does exactly that. For each backup policy the instance is under, it creates one AMI. In our example we have four backup policies, that will result in four AMIs for each of the instances. Every AMI has to have at least one storage volume. So CPM will include the root volume of each instance into AMI, just because it has to. But AMIs are required only to restore EC2 instance configuration. Data is restored from volume snapshots, that can be used to create new volumes from them and then attach them to the instance. You can click on the View button under Snapshots to find the corresponding snapshot and AMI IDs.

There is a backup log for each job run as well that is helpful for issue troubleshooting.

Restore

To perform a restore click on the Recover button next to the backup job and you will get the list of the instances you can recover. CPM offers you three options: instance recovery, volume recovery and file recovery. Let’s go back to front.

File recovery is probably the most used recovery option. As it lets you restore individual files. When you click on the “Explore” button, CPM creates new volumes from the snapshots you are restoring from and mount them to the CPM instance. You are then presented with a simple file system browser where you can find the file and click on the green down arrow icon in Download column to save the file to your computer.

If you click on “Volume Only”, you can restore particular volumes. Restored volumes are not attached to any instance, unless you specify it under “Attach to Instance” column. You can then select under “Attach Behaviour” what CPM should do if such volume is already attached to the instance or if you want to automatically detach the original volume, but the instance is running (you can do it only if instance is stopped).

And the last option is “Instance”. It will create a clone of the original instance using the pre-generated AMI and volume snapshots, as we discussed in the Backup section of this blog post. You can specify many options under Advanced Options section, including recovery to another VPC or different availability zone. If anything, make sure you specify a new IP address for the instance, otherwise you’ll have a conflict and your restore will fail. Ideally you should also shut down the original EC2 instance before spinning up a restore clone.

Advanced Features

There are quite a few worth mentioning. So far we have looked at simple EC2 instance restore. But you don’t have to backup whole instances, you can also backup individual volumes. On top of that, CPM supports RDS database, Aurora and Redshift cluster backups.

If you run MS Exchange, Sharepoint or SQL on your EC2 instances, you can install CPM backup agent on them to ensure you have application-consistent backups via VSS, as opposed to crash-consistent backups you get if agent is not used. If you install the agent, you can also run a script on the instance before and after the backup is taken.

Last but not least is DR. Restoring to another availability zone within the region is already supported on instance recovery level. You can choose availability zone you want to restore to. It is not possible to recover to another region, though. Because AWS snapshots and AMIs are local to the region they are created in. If you want to be able to recover to another region, you can configure DR in CPM, which will utilise AWS AMI and snapshot copy functionality to copy backups to another region at configured frequency.

Conclusion

Overall, I found Cloud Protection Manager very easy to install, configure and use. If you come from infrastructure background, at first glance CPM may look to you like a very basic tool, compared to such feature-rich solutions like Veeam or Commvault. But that feeling is misleading. CPM is simple, because AWS simple. All infrastructure complexity is hidden under the covers. As a result, all AWS backup tools need to do is create snapshots and CPM does it well.

Consistent VMware snapshots on NetApp

March 16, 2012

If you use NetApp as a storage for you VMware hard drives, it’s wise to utilize NetApp’s powerful snapshot capabilities as an instant backup tool. I shortly mentioned in my previous post that you should disable default snapshot schedule. Snapshot is done very quickly on NetApp, but still it’s not instantaneous. If VM is running you can get .vmdks which have inconsistent data. Here I’d like to describe how you can perform consistent snapshots of VM hard drives which sit on NetApp volumes exported via NFS. Obviously it won’t work for iSCSI LUNs since you will have LUNs snapshots which are almost useless for backups.

What makes VMware virtualization platform far superior to other well-known solutions in the market is VI APIs. VI API is a set of Web services hosted on Virtual Center and ESX hosts that provides interfaces for all components and operations. Particularly, there is a Perl interface for VI API which is called VMware Infrastructure Perl Toolkit. You can download and install it for free. Using VI Perl Toolkit you can write a script which will every day put your VMs in a so called hot backup mode and make NetApp snapshots as well. Practically, hot backup mode is also a snapshot. When you create a VM snapshot, original VM hard drive is left intact and VMware starts to write delta in another file. It means that VM hard drive won’t change when making NetApp snapshot and you will get consistent .vmdk files. Now lets move to implementation.

I will write excerpts from the actual script here, because lines in the script are quite long and everything will be messed up on the blog page. I uploaded full script on FileDen. Here is the link. I apologize if you read this blog entry far later than it was published and my account or the FileDen service itself no longer exist.

VI Perl Toolkit is effectively a set of Perl scripts which you run as ready to use utilities. We will use snapshotmanager.pl which lets you create VMware VM snapshots. In the first step you make snapshots of all VMs:

\”$perl_path\perl\” -w \”$perl_toolkit_path\snapshotmanager.pl\” –server vc_ip –url https://vc_ip/sdk/vimService –username snapuser –password 123456  –operation create –snapshotname \”Daily Backup Shapshot\”

For the sake of security I created Snapshot Manager role and respective user account in Virtual Center with only two allowed operations: Create Snapshot and Remove Snapshot. Run line is self explanatory. I execute it using system($run_line) command.

After VM snapshots are created you make a NetApp snapshot:

“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap create vm_sata snap_name

To connect to NetApp terminal I use PuTTY ssh client. putty.exe itself has a GUI and plink.exe is for batch scripting. Using this command you create snapshot of particular NetApp volume. Those which hold .vmdks in our case.

To get all VMs from hot backup mode run:

\”$perl_path\perl\” -w \”$perl_toolkit_path\snapshotmanager.pl\” –server vc_ip –url https://vc_ip/sdk/vimService –username snapuser –password 123456  –operation remove –snapshotname \”Daily Backup Shapshot\”  –children 0

By –children 0 here we tell not to remove all children snapshots.

After we familiarized ourselves with main commands, lets move on to the script logic. Apparently you will want to have several snapshots. For example 7 of them for each day of the week. It means each day, before making new snapshot you will need to remove oldest and rename others. Renaming is just for clarity. You can name your snapshots vmsnap.1, vmsnap.2, … , vmsnap.7. Where vmsnap.7 is the oldest. Each night you put your VMs in hot backup mode and delete the oldest snapshot:

“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap delete vm_sata vmsnap.7

Then you rename other snapshots:

“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap rename vm_sata vmsnap.6 vmsnap.7
“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap rename vm_sata vmsnap.5 vmsnap.6
“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap rename vm_sata vmsnap.4 vmsnap.5
“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap rename vm_sata vmsnap.3 vmsnap.4
“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap rename vm_sata vmsnap.2 vmsnap.3

And create the new one:

“\$plink_path” -ssh -2 -batch -i \”private_key_path\” -l root netapp_ip snap create vm_sata vmsnap.1

As a last step you bring your VMs out of hot backup mode.

Using this technique you can create short term backups of your virtual infrastructure and use them for long term retention with help of standalone backup solutions. Like backing up data from snapshots to tape library using Symantec BackupExec. I’m gonna talk about this in my later posts.