Posts Tagged ‘image’

Force10 MXL: Firmware Upgrade

March 19, 2015

Uploading new firmware image

MXL switches keep two firmware images – A and B. You can set either one of them to be active. Use the following command to list firmware version of all stack members and see which one is active:

 # show boot system stack-unit all


To upload firmware you will need a TFTP server. You can use TFTPD64 (also called TFTPD32), which can be downloaded from Philippe Jounin page here .

If the active firmware image is in A, upload new firmware to B. You’ll also be asked if you want to upload firmware to all switches in the stack.

# upgrade system tftp:// b:


At the time of upgrade the latest version was 9.7. This version was 2 weeks old and wasn’t recommended for use in production. Version 9.6 had a major bug. As a result version 9.5SP2 was chosen for the upgrade.

Double-check that new firmware has been successfully distributed to all switches:

 # show boot system stack-unit all


Backing up startup config

Make sure you do not miss this step. If something goes wrong and switch looses its config, you’ll have to recreate all configuration from scratch. Imagine the consequences.

# copy start tftp://

Reloading the stack

Once firmware is uploaded and config is saved, reload the stack. Be mindful that it’s a disruptive procedure and all links connected to the stack will go down. A reboot shouldn’t take more than a couple of minutes, but make sure you do that after hours.

# conf t
# boot system stack-unit all primary system b:
# exit
# copy run start
# reload

Confirm that the active firmware image is now B. And that concludes the switch stack upgrade.




Migrating physical Linux host to the VMware ESXi

May 2, 2012

Well, perhaps the easiest way to accomplish that is using VMware Converter from the start. I believe there is a Linux version. However, I took another route. I already had an Acronis backup image. So my solution was to use this image as a source, which I fed into Windows version of VMware Converter, which in its turn converted it to VMware format and created VMware virtual machine on ESXi server automatically.

Using this simple procedure you can get a working system. Not in my case. Original OS used a software RAID of two hard drives. So I had to boot from a live CD. Then I changed fstab and GRUB’s menu.lst and set /dev/sda1 (root volume) instead of /dev/md0 and /dev/sda2 (swap) in place of /dev/md1. Additionally, I had to reinject GRUB’s boot files:

grub-install –root-directory=/media/sda1/boot /dev/sda

Then, if it’s SUSE you will have to change “resume” switch in GRUB’s boot menu line to /dev/null. Then after you boot into the system, recreate swap partition and point to it in “resume” switch. If you won’t do that, you will end up with the following error during boot process:

Kernel panic – not syncing: I/O error reading memory image

One tricky issue I had in all this story was related to kernel. As I’ve already mentioned original operating system worked on top of software RAID. And its initrd image won’t detect ordinary virtual SCSI hard drive during boot. So I had to boot from the SUSE installation CD and install standard kernel on top of original system. It solved the issue. Additionally I had to choose Russian language as primary during kernel installation, otherwise I ended up with unreadable symbols inside the system. But it’s not necessary for majority of cases.

I hope my experience will be helpful for other sysadmins.