Posts Tagged ‘notification’

Creating vRealize Operations Manager Alerts Using REST API

September 11, 2018

Whenever I’m faced with a repetitive configuration task, I search for ways to automate it. There’s nothing more boring than sitting and clicking through the GUI for hours performing the same thing over and over again.

These days most of the products I work with support REST API interface, so scripting has become my solution of choice. But scripting requires you to know a scripting language, such as PowerShell, certain SDKs and APIs, like PowerCLI and REST and more importantly – time to write the script and test it. If you’re going to use this script regularly, in the long-term it’s worth the effort . But what if it’s a one-off task? You may well end up spending more time writing a script, than it takes to perform the task manually. In this case there are more practical ways to improve your efficiency. One of such ways is to use developer tools like Postman.

The idea is that you can write a REST request that applies a certain configuration setting and use it as a template to make multiple calls by slightly tweaking the parameters. You would have to change the parameters manually for each request, which is not as elegant as providing an array of variables to a script, but still much quicker than clicking through the GUI.

Recently I worked on a VMware Validated Design (VVD) deployment for a customer, which required configuring dozens of vRealize Operations Manager alerts as part of the build. So I will use it as an example to demonstrate how you can save yourself hours by doing it in Postman, instead of GUI.

Collect Alert Properties

To create an alert in vROps you will need to specify certain alert properties in the REST API call body. You will need at least:

  • “pluginId” – ID of the outbound plugin, which is usually the Standard Email Plugin
  • “emailaddr” – recipient email address
  • “values” property under the alertDefinitionIdFilters XML element – this is the alert definition ID
  • “resourceKind” – resource that the alert is applicable for, such as VirtualMachine, Datastore, etc.
  • “adapterKind” – this is the adapter that the alert comes from, such VMWARE, NSX, etc.

To determine the pluginId you will need to configure an outbound plugin in vROps and then make the following GET call to get the ID:

To find values for alert definition, resource kind and adapter kind properties, make the following get call and search for the alert name in the results:

Create Alert in vROps

To create an alert in vROps, you will need to make a POST call to the following URI in XML format:

  • Use the following request URL: https://vrops-hostname/suite-api/api/notifications/rules
  • Click on Headers tab and specify the following key “Content-Type” and value “application/xml”
  • Click on Body tab and choose raw, in the drop-down choose “XML (application/xml)”
  • Copy the following XML request to the body and use it as a template
<ops:notification-rule xmlns:xsi=""
No data received for Windows platform
<ops:adapterKind>EP Ops Adapter</ops:adapterKind>
<ops:values>AlertDefinition-EP Ops
<ops:properties name="emailaddr">vrops@corp.local</ops:properties>

As described before, make sure to replace the following properties with your own values: “pluginId”, “values” property under the alertDefinitionIdFilters XML element, resourceKind, adapterKind and emailaddr.

As a result of the REST API call you will get an alert created in vROps:

For every other alert you can keep the plugin ID and email address the same and update only the alert definition, resouce kind and adapter kind.


By using the same REST call and changing properties for each alert accordingly, I was able to finish the job much quicker and avoided hours of pain of clicking through the GUI. As long as you have a REST API endpoint to work with, the same approach can be applied to any repetitive task.

If you’d like to learn more, make sure to check out VMware {code} project here for more information about VMware product APIs and SDKs.


[SOLVED] Migrating vCenter Notifications

January 6, 2018

Why is this a problem?

VMware upgrades and migrations still comprise a large chunk of what I do in my job. If it is an in-place upgrade it is often more straightforward. The main consideration is making sure all compatibility checks are made. But if it is a rebuild, things get a bit more complicated.

Take for example a vCenter Server to vCenter Server Appliance migration. If you are migrating between 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 you are covered by the vCenter Server Migration Tool. Recently I came across a customer using vSphere 5.1 (yes, it is not as uncommon as you might think). vCenter Server Migration Tool does not support migration from vSphere 5.1, which is fair enough, as it is end of support was August 2016. But as a result, you end up being on your own with your upgrade endeavours and have to do a lot of the things manually. One of such things is migrating vCenter notifications.

You can go and do it by hand. Using a few PowerCLI commands you can list the currently configured notifications and then recreate them on the new vCenter. But knowing how clunky and slow this process is, I doubt you are looking forward to spend half a day configuring each of the dozens notifications one by one by hand (I sure am not).

I offer an easy solution

You may have seen a comic over on xkcd called “Is It Worth The Time?“. Which gives you an estimate of how long you can work on making a routine task more efficient before you are spending more time than you save (across five years). As an example, if you can save one hour by automating a task that you do monthly, even if you spend two days on automating it, you will still brake even in five years.

Knowing how often I do VMware upgrades, it is well worth for me to invest time in automating it by scripting. Since you do not do upgrades that often, for you it is not, so I wrote this script for you.

If you simply want to get the job done, you can go ahead and download it from my GitHub page here (you will also need VMware PowerCLI installed on your machine for it to work) and then run it like so:

.\copy-vcenter-alerts-v1.0.ps1 -SourceVcenter -DestinationVcenter

Script includes help topics, that you can view by running the following command:

Get-Help -full .\copy-vcenter-alerts-v1.0.ps1

Or if you are curious, you can read further to better understand how script works.

How does this work?

First of all, it is important to understand the terminology used in vSphere:

  • Alarm trigger – a set of conditions that must be met for an alarm warning and alert to occur.
  • Alarm action – operations that occur in response to triggered alarms. For example, email notifications.

Script takes source and destination vCenter IP addresses or host names as parameters and starts by retrieving the list of existing alerts. Then it compares alert definitions and if alert doesn’t exist on the destination, it will be skipped, so be aware of that. Script will show you a warning and you will be able to make a decision about what to do with such alert later.

Then for each of the source alerts, that exists on the destination, script recreates actions, with exact same triggers. Trigger settings, such as repeats (enabled/disabled) and trigger state changes (green to yellow, yellow to red, etc) are also copied.

Script will not attempt to recreate an action that already exists, so feel free to run the script multiple times, if you need to.

What script does not do

  1. Script does not copy custom alerts – if you have custom alert definitions, you will have to recreate them manually. It was not worth investing time in such feature at this stage, as custom alerts are rare and even if encountered, there us just a handful, that can be moved manually.
  2. Only email notification actions are supported – because they are the most common. If you use other actions, like SNMP traps, let me know and maybe I will include them in the next version.

PowerCLI cmdlets used

These are some of the useful VMware PowerCLI cmdlets I used to write the script:

  • Get-AlarmDefinition
  • Get-AlarmAction
  • Get-AlarmActionTrigger
  • New-AlarmAction
  • New-AlarmActionTrigger

Disabling NetApp Growth Rate Abnormal Alert

July 1, 2013

NetApp DataFabric Manager has one annoying alert, which notifies that space utilization of the volume increases more quickly than expected. I used to receive dozens of these alerts each morning until I had done the following:

> dfm eventtype modify -v information volume-growth-rate:abnormal

This command changes the default severity for this event from warning to informational. Since my notifications configured to send everything higher or equal to warning, I no longer receive this alert.

There is a “volume full” event which triggers at 90%, I believe, which is enough for me.

GFS backup scheme in Symantec Backup Exec

March 23, 2012

Grandfather-Father-Son is an industry standard backup scheme, where you have 5 daily backups, 5 weekly backups and as many monthly as you need. Symantec Backup Exec has prebuilt policy for GFS, but before going into configuring backup scheme itself, lets talk a little bit about general backup job configuration in Backup Exec.

Basic Terminology

Inside user interface you see Jobs, Policies, Selection Lists and Media Sets. First of all you need to create Selection List, which describes what you want to backup. There you select files and folders from your Windows, Unix or NDMP servers. Then you create Media Set, which is a collection of tapes with particular append and retention periods. Append period specifies how long data can be added to the same tape and retention period tells for how long data cannot be overwritten. Retention period starts form the time of last append to the tape. Then you create Policy. Policy, by means of templates, defines when backup jobs are run, where backups are stored and what is the type of backup – incremental, differential or full. One policy can consist of several templates. In template you specify backup date and time, as well as target tape library.

GFS Implementation

Backup Exec has a template for GFS backup rotation scheme. Click “New policy using wizard”, choose GFS scheme and then select schedule, target backup device and media sets for daily, weekly and monthly backups. By default Backup Exec suggests the following configuration.

Three tape media sets:

  • Daily Media Set – 1 week overwrite, 1 week append
  • Weekly Media Set – 5 weeks overwrite, 5 weeks append
  • Monthly Media Set – 1 year overwrite, 1 year append

Policy with three templates:

  • Daily Backup – Monday to Friday, Incremental
  • Weekly Backup – every Friday, Full
  • Monthly Backup – first Saturday of each month, Full

Also Backup Exec automatically creates rules to resolve conflicts. For example when both Daily and Weekly backups try to run on Friday, jobs do not conflict, because weekly backups always supersede daily. Same for monthly.

I personally prefer another schedule. First of all, if you run your jobs after midnight, you will need to shift your schedules from Mon – Fri to Tue – Sat. Additionally, I run monthly backup on the first Saturday of the month. Backup Exec by default (taking into consideration my one day shift) would suggest first Sunday for the monthly backup. However, it doesn’t make much sense to have weekly on Saturday and then monthly next day on Sunday. You would just consume more space without any benefit. Also, you can schedule monthly on the last Saturday of the month, but if the last day is Thursday, for example, then you will loose four business days from your monthly backup.

After the policy is created, you need to create backup jobs using this policy by clicking on New jobs using policy. All three jobs will be created automatically according to Selection List, as well as Policy Schedule, Target, and Backup Type parameters.

I’d also recommend everyone to configure notifications. There are general Alerts properties as well as inside each job.