Posts Tagged ‘VM’

Quick Way to Migrate VMs Between Standalone ESXi Hosts

September 26, 2017


Since vSphere 5.1, VMware offers an easy migration path for VMs running on hosts managed by a vCenter. Using Enhanced vMotion available in Web Client, VMs can be migrated between hosts, even if they don’t have shared datastores. In vSphere 6.0 cross vCenter vMotion(xVC-vMotion) was introduced, which no longer requires you to even have old and new hosts be managed by the same vCenter.

But what if you don’t have a vCenter and you need to move VMs between standalone ESXi hosts? There are many tools that can do that. You can use V2V conversion in VMware Converter or replication feature of the free version of Veeam Backup and Replication. But probably the easiest tool to use is OVF Tool.

Tool Overview

OVF Tool has been around since Open Virtualization Format (OVF) was originally published in 2008. It’s constantly being updated and the latest version 4.2.0 supports vSphere up to version 6.5. The only downside of the tool is it can export only shut down VMs. It’s may cause problems for big VMs that take long time to export, but for small VMs the tool is priceless.


OVF Tool is a CLI tool that is distributed as an MSI installer and can be downloaded from VMware web site. One important thing to remember is that when you’re migrating VMs, OVF Tool is in the data path. So make sure you install the tool as close to the workload as possible, to guarantee the best throughput possible.

Usage Examples

After the tool is installed, open Windows command line and change into the tool installation directory. Below are three examples of the most common use cases: export, import and migration.

Exporting VM as an OVF image:

> ovftool “vi://username:password@source_host/vm_name” “vm_name.ovf”

Importing VM from an OVF image:

> ovftool -ds=”destination_datastore” “vm_name.ovf” “vi://username:password@destination_host”

Migrating VM between ESXi hosts:

> ovftool -ds=”destination_datastore” “vi://username:password@source_host/vm_name” “vi://username:password@destination_host”

When you are migrating, machine the tool is running on is still used as a proxy between two hosts, the only difference is you are not saving the OVF image to disk and don’t need disk space available on the proxy.

This is what it looks like in vSphere and HTML5 clients’ task lists:


When planning migrations using OVF Tool, throughput is an important consideration, because migration requires downtime.

OVF Tool is quite efficient in how it does export/import. Even for thick provisioned disks it reads only the consumed portion of the .vmdk. On top of that, generated OVF package is compressed.

Due to compression, OVF Tool is typically bound by the speed of ESXi host’s CPU. In the screenshot below you can see how export process takes 1 out of 2 CPU cores (compression is singe-threaded).

While testing on a 2 core Intel i5, I was getting 25MB/s read rate from disk and an average export throughput of 15MB/s, which is roughly equal to 1.6:1 compression ratio.

For a VM with a 100GB disk, that has 20GB of space consumed, this will take 20*1024/25 = 819 seconds or about 14 minutes, which is not bad if you ask me. On a Xeon CPU I expect throughput to be even higher.


There are a few issues that you can potentially run into that are well-known, but I think are still worth mentioning here.

Special characters in URIs (string starting with vi://) must be escaped. Use % followed by the character HEX code. You can find character HEX codes here:

For example use “vi://root:P%40ssword@”, instead of “vi://root:P@ssword@” or you can get confusing errors similar to this:

Error: Could not lookup host: root

Disconnect ISO images from VMs before migrating them or you will get the following error:

Error: A general system error occurred: vim.fault.FileNotFound


OVF Tool requires downtime when exporting, importing or migrating VMs, which can be a deal-breaker for large scale migrations. When downtime is not a concern or for VMs that are small enough for the outage to be minimal, from now on OVF Tool will be my migration tool of choice.


How Admission Control Really Works

May 2, 2016

confusionThere is a moment in every vSphere admin’s life when he faces vSphere Admission Control. Quite often this moment is not the most pleasant one. In one of my previous posts I talked about some of the common issues that Admission Control may cause and how to avoid them. And quite frankly Admission Control seems to do more harm than good in most vSphere environments.

Admission Control is a vSphere feature that is built to make sure that VMs with reservations can be restarted in a cluster if one of the cluster hosts fails. “Reservations” is the key word here. There is a common belief that Admission Control protects all other VMs as well, but that’s not true.

Let me go through all three vSphere Admission Control policies and explain why you’re better of disabling Admission Control altogether, as all of these policies give you little to no benefit.

Host failures cluster tolerates

This policy is the default when you deploy a vSphere cluster and policy which causes the most issues. “Host failures cluster tolerates” uses slots to determine if a VM is allowed to be powered on in a cluster. Depending on whether VM has CPU and memory reservations configured it can use one or more slots.

Slot Size

To determine the total number of slots for a cluster, Admission Control uses slot size. Slot size is either the default 32MHz and 128MB of RAM (for vSphere 6) or if you have VMs in the cluster configured with reservations, then the slot size will be calculated based on the maximum CPU/memory reservation. So say if you have 100 VMs, 98 of which have no reservations, one VM has 2 vCPUs and 8GB of memory reserved and another VM has 4 vCPUs and 4GB of memory reserved, then the slot size will jump from 32MHz / 128MB to 4 vCPUs / 8GB of memory. If you have 2.0 GHz CPUs on your hosts, the 4 vCPU reservation will be an equivalent of 8.0 GHz.

Total Number of Slots

Now that we know the slot size, which happens to be 8.0 GHz and 8GB of memory, we can calculate the total number of slots in the cluster. If you have 2 x 8 core CPUs and 256GB of RAM in each of 4 ESXi hosts, then your total amount of resources is 16 cores x 2.0 GHz x 4 hosts = 128 GHz and 256GB x 4 hosts = 1TB of RAM. If your slot size is 4 vCPUs and 8GB of RAM, you get 64 vCPUs / 4 vCPUs = 16 slots (you’ll get more for memory, but the least common denominator has to be used).


Practical Use

Now if you configure to tolerate one host failure, you have to subtract four slots from the total number. Every VM, even if it doesn’t have reservations takes up one slot. And as a result you can power on maximum 12 VMs on your cluster. How does that sound?

Such incredibly restrictive behaviour is the reason why almost no one uses it in production. Unless it’s left there by default. You can manually change the slot size, but I have no knowledge of an approach one would use to determine the slot size. That’s the policy number one.

Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity

This is the second policy, which is commonly recommended by most to use instead of the restrictive “Host failures cluster tolerates”. This policy uses percentage-based instead of the slot-based admission.

It’s much more straightforward, you simply specify the percentage of resources you want to reserve. For example if you have four hosts in a cluster the common belief is that if you specify 25% of CPU and memory, they’ll be reserved to restart VMs in case one of the hosts fail. But it won’t. Here’s the reason why.

When calculating amount of free resources in a cluster, Admission Control takes into account only VM reservations and memory overhead. If you have no VMs with reservations in your cluster then HA will be showing close to 99% of free resources even if you’re running 200 VMs.


For instance, if all of your VMs have 4 vCPUs and 8GB of RAM, then memory overhead would be 60.67MB per VM. For 300 VMs it’s roughly 18GB. If you have two VMs with reservations, say one VM with 2 vCPUs / 4GB of RAM and another VM with 4 vCPUs / 2GB of RAM, then you’ll need to add up your reservations as well.

So if we consider memory, it’s 18GB + 4GB + 2GB = 24GB. If you have the total of 1TB of RAM in your cluster, Admission Control will consider 97% of your memory resources being free.

For such approach to work you’d need to configure reservations on 100% of your VMs. Which obviously no one would do. So that’s the policy number two.

Specify failover hosts

This is the third policy, which typically is the least recommended, because it dedicates a host (or multiple hosts) specifically just for failover. You cannot run VMs on such hosts. If you try to vMotion a VM to it, you’ll get an error.


In my opinion, this policy would actually be the most useful for reserving cluster resources. You want to have N+1 redundancy, then reserve it. This policy does exactly that.


When it comes to vSphere Admission Control, everyone knows that “Host failures cluster tolerates” policy uses slot-based admission and is better to be avoided.

There’s a common misconception, though, that “Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity” is more useful and can reserve CPU and memory capacity for host failover. But in reality it’ll let you run as many VMs as you want and utilize all of your cluster resources, except for the tiny amount of CPU and memory for a handful of VMs with reservations you may have in your environment.

If you want to reserve failover capacity in your cluster, either use “Specify failover hosts” policy or simply disable Admission Control and keep an eye on your cluster resource utilization manually (or using vROps) to make sure you always have room for growth.

Implications of Ignoring vSphere Admission Control

April 5, 2016

no-admissionHA Admission Control has historically been on of the lesser understood vSphere topics. It’s not intuitive how it works and what it does. As a result it’s left configured with default values in most vSphere environments. But default Admission Control setting are very restrictive and can often cause issues.

In this blog post I want to share the two most common issues with vSphere Admission Control and solutions to these issues.

Issue #1: Not being able to start a VM


Probably the most common issue everyone encounters with Admission Control is when you suddenly cannot power on VMs any more. There are multiple reasons why that might happen, but most likely you’ve just configured a reservation on one of your VMs or deployed a VM from an OVA template with a pre-configured reservation. This has triggered a change in Admission Control slot size and based on the new slot size you no longer have enough slots to satisfy failover requirements.

As a result you get the following alarm in vCenter: “Insufficient vSphere HA failover resources”. And when you try to create and boot a new VM you get: “Insufficient resources to satisfy configured failover level for vSphere HA”.



So what exactly has happened here. In my example a new VM with 4GHz of CPU and 4GB of RAM was deployed. Admission Control was set to its default “Host Failures Cluster Tolerates” policy. This policy uses slot sizes. Total amount of resources in the cluster is divided by the slot size (4GHz and 4GB in the above case) and then each VM (even if it doesn’t have a reservation) uses at least 1 slot. Once you configure a VM reservation, depending on the number of VMs in your cluster more often than not you get all slots being used straight away. As you can see based on the calculations I have 91 slots in the cluster, which have instantly been used by 165 running VMs.



You can control the slot size manually and make it much smaller, such as 1GHz and 1GB of RAM. That way you’d have much more slots. The VM from my previous example would use four slots. And all other VMs which have no reservations would use less slots in total, because of a smaller slot size. But this process is manual and prone to error.

The better solution is to use “Percentage of Cluster Resources” policy, which is recommended for most environments. We’ll go over the main differences between the three available Admission Control policies after we discuss the second issue.

Issue #2: Not being able to enter Maintenance Mode


It might be a corner case, but I still see it quite often. It’s when you have two hosts in a cluster (such as ROBO, DR or just a small environment) and try to put one host into maintenance mode.

The first issue you will encounter is that VMs are not automatically vMotion’ed to other hosts using DRS. You have to evacuate VMs manually.

And then once you move all VMs to the other host and put it into maintenance mode, you again can no longer power on VMs and get the same error: “Insufficient resources to satisfy configured failover level for vSphere HA”.



This happens because disconnected hosts and hosts in maintenance mode are not used in Admission Control calculations. And one host is obviously not enough for failover, because if it fails, there are no other hosts to fail over to.


If you got caught up in such situation you can temporarily disable Admission Control all together until you finish maintenance. This is the reason why it’s often recommended to have at least 3 hosts in a cluster, but it can not always be justified if you have just a handful of VMs.

Alternatives to Slot Size Admission Control

There are another two Admission Control policies. First is “Specify a Failover Host”, which dedicates a host (or hosts) for failover. Such host acts as a hot standby and can run VMs only in a failover situation. This policy is ideal if you want to reserve failover resources.

And the second is “Percentage of Cluster Resources”. Resources under this policy are reserved based on the percentage of total cluster resources. If you have five hosts in your cluster you can reserve 20% of resources (which is equal to one host) for failover.

This policy uses percentage of cluster resources, instead of slot sizes, and hence doesn’t have the issues of the “Host Failures Cluster Tolerates” policy. There is a gotcha, if you add another five hosts to your cluster, you will need to change reservation to 10%, which is often overlooked.


“Percentage of Cluster Resources” policy is recommended to use in most cases to avoid issues with slot sizes. What is important to understand is that the goal of this policy is just to guarantee that VMs with reservations can be restarted in a host failure scenario.

If a VM has no reservations, then “Percentage of Cluster Resources” policy will use only memory overhead of this VM in its calculations. Which is probably the most confusing part about Admission Control in general. But that’s a topic for the next blog post.


ESXi Host Maintenance with Zerto

February 1, 2016

zerto2Zerto replication is quite easy to configure. Once you have a Zerto Virtual Manager (ZVM) and Virtual Replication Adaptors (VRA) up and running at both sites, you can start adding your virtual machines to replication. There is, however, one question which comes up a lot from the operations point of view. What if you have replication going between the sites and you need to put one of your ESXi hosts into maintenance mode, would that break the replication? The answer is as always – it depends.

Source Site

In Zerto you typically have VRAs installed on each of the hosts at both sites and traffic going one way – from Production data centre to DR. Now, if you want to do maintenance on one of the hosts where VMs are being replicated FROM (Production site) then all you need to do is vMotion VMs to the remaining hosts. Zerto fully supports vMotion and the process is seamless. When VMs are moved to other hosts, VRAs on these hosts automatically pick them up and replication continues without user’s intervention.

Destination Site

If you want to do maintenance on one of the hosts where VMs are being replicated TO (DR site), then this is where you need to be more careful. VMs replicated by Zerto are not shown in vCenter inventory and obviously can’t be moved using conventional vMotion method. This is done from ZVM’s GUI.


In ZVM find the host you want to put into maintenance mode on the Setup tab and in the More drop-down menu select Change VM Recovery VRA. Select the replacement host where you want to redirect VM replication to and click Save. What this option does in Zerto is somewhat similar to what vMotion does in vSphere – it migrates VMs between VRAs.

Once you hit the button, VMs’ RPO will start to grow until the migration is finished. In my case for 12 VMs the process took about 5 minutes to complete. If you have dozens of protected VMs on each of the VRAs, it may take significantly longer. If it’s a concern, you may want to allocate a maintenance windows for this activity.


You will also get a warning that the migration will result in a bitmap-sync. Bitmap Sync tracks the changed blocks on a VM when replication to the destination VRA is interrupted. The amount of changed data over a 5 minute period should be reasonably small. And in my experience VMs get back in sync after a migration very quickly.

When all replicated VMs are moved to another recovery host, you can vMotion out any VMs you may have running on the host, shut down the VRA and put the host into maintenance mode to carry out the maintenance activities.

Once that’s finished, just do the reverse. Disable maintenance mode on the host, boot up the VRA and move back the migrated VMs. In the Change VM Recovery VRA dialogue you can select a completely different set of VMs to move back. As long as you keep them balanced between all VRAs in your cluster you should be good.

Zerto Overview

March 6, 2014

zerto-logoZerto is a VM replication product which works on a hypervisor level. In contrast to array level replication, which SRM has been using for a long time, it eliminates storage array from the equation and all the complexities which used to come along with it (SRAs, splitting the LUNs for replicated and non-replicated VMs, potential incompatibilities between the orchestrated components, etc).

Basic Operation

Zerto consists of two components: ZVM (Zerto Virtual Manger) and VRA (Virtual Replication Appliance). VRAs are VMs that need to be installed on each ESXi host within the vCenter environment (performed in automated fashion from within ZVM console). ZVM manages VRAs and all the replication settings and is installed one per vCenter. VRA mirrors protected VMs I/O operations to the recovery site. VMs are grouped in VPGs (Virtual Protection Groups), which can be used as a consistency group or just a container.

Protected VMs can be preseeded  to DR site. But what Zerto essentially does is it replicates VM disks to any datastore on recovery site where you point it to and then tracks changes in what is called a journal volume. Journal is created for each VM and is kept as a VMDK within the “ZeRTO volumes” folder on a target datastore. Every few seconds Zerto creates checkpoints on a journal, which serve as crash consistent recovery points. So you can recover to any point in time, with a few seconds granularity. You can set the journal length in hours, depending on how far you potentially would want to go back. It can be anywhere between 1 and 120 hours.Data-Replication-over-WAN

VMs are kept unregistered from vCenter on DR site and VM configuration data is kept in Zerto repository. Which essentially means that if an outage happens and something goes really wrong and Zerto fails to bring up VMs on DR site you will need to recreate VMs manually. But since VMDKs themselves are kept in original format you will still be able to attach them to VMs and power them on.

Failover Scenarios

There are four failover scenarios within Zerto:

  • Move Operation – VMs are shut down on production site, unregistered from inventory, powered on at DR site and protection is reversed if you decide to do so. If you choose not to reverse protection, VMs are completely removed from production site and VPG is marked as “Needs Configuration”. This scenario can be seen as a planned migration of VMs between the sites and needs both sites to be healthy and operational.
  • Failover Operation – is used in disaster scenario when production site might be unavailable. In this case Zerto brings up protected VMs on DR site, but it does not try to remove VMs from production site inventory and leave them as is. If production site is still accessible you can optionally select to shutdown VMs. You cannot automatically reverse protection in this scenario, VPG is marked as “Needs Configuration” and can be activated later. And when it is activated, Zerto does all the clean up operations on the former production site: shuts down VMs (if they haven’t been already), unregister them from inventory and move to VRA folder on the datastore.
  • Failover Test Operation – this is for failover testing and brings up VMs on DR site in a configured bubble network which is normally not uplinked to any physical network. VMs continue to run on both sites. Note that VMs disk files in this scenario are not moved to VMs folders (as in two previous scenarios) and are just connected from VRA VM folder. You would also notice that Zerto created second journal volume which is called “scratch” journal. Changes to the VM that is running on DR site are saved to this journal while it’s being tested.
  • Clone Operation – VMs are cloned on DR site and connected to network. VMs are not automatically powered on to prevent potential network conflicts. This can be used for instance in DR site testing, when you want to check actual networking connectivity, instead of connecting VMs to an isolated network. Or for implementing backups, cloned environment for applications testing, etc.

Zerto Journal Sizing

By default journal history is configured as 4 hours and journal size is unlimited. Depending on data change rate within the VM journal can be smaller or larger. 15GB is approximately enough storage to support a virtual machine with 1TB of storage, assuming a 10% change rate per day with four hours of journal history saved. Zerto has a Journal Sizing Tool which helps to size journals. You can create a separate journal datastore as well.

Zerto compared to VMware Replication and SRM

There are several replication products in the market from VMware. Standalone VMware replication, VMware replication + SRM orchestraion and SRM array-based replication. If you want to know more on how they compare to Zerto, you can read the articles mentioned in references below. One apparent Zerto advantage, which I want to mention here, is integration with vCloud Director, which is essential for cloud providers who offer DRaaS solutions. SRM has no vCloud Director support.


How to move aggregates between NetApp controllers

September 25, 2013

Stop Sign_91602




We had an issue with high CPU usage on one of the NetApp controllers servicing a couple of NFS datastores to VMware ESX cluster. HA pair of FAS2050 had two shelves, both of them owned by the first controller. The obvious solution for us was to reassign disks from one of the shelves to the other controller to balance the load. But how do you do this non-disruptively? Here is the plan.

In our setup we had two controllers (filer1, filer2), two shelves (shelf1, shelf2) both assigned to filer1. And two aggregates, each on its own shelf (aggr0 on shelf0, aggr1 on shelf1). Say, we want to reassign disks from shelf2 to filer2.

First step is to migrate all of the VMs from the shelf2 to shelf1. Because operation is obviously disruptive to the hosts accessing data from the target shelf. Once all VMs are evacuated, offline all volumes and an aggregate, to prevent any data corruption (you can’t take aggregate offline from online state, so change it to restricted first).

If you prefer to reassign disks in two steps, as described in NetApp Professional Services Tech Note #021: Changing Disk Ownership, don’t forget to disable automatic ownership assignment on both controllers, otherwise disks will be assigned back to the same controller again, right after you unown them:

> options disk.auto_assign off

It’s not necessary if you change ownership in one step as shown below.

Next step is to actually reassign the disks. Since they are already part of an aggregate you will need to force the ownership change:

filer1> disk assign 1b.01.00 -o filer2 -f

filer1> disk assign 1b.01.01 -o filer2 -f

filer1> disk assign 1b.01.nn -o filer2 -f

If you do not force disk reassignment you will get an error:

Assign request failed for disk 1b.01.0. Reason:Disk is part of a failed or offline aggregate or volume. Changing its owner may prevent aggregate or volume from coming back online. Ownership may be changed only by using the appropriate force option.

When all disks are moved across to filer2, new aggregate will show up in the list of aggregates on filer2 and you’ll be able to bring it online. If you can’t see the aggregate, force filer to rescan the drives by running:

filer2> disk show

The old aggregate will still be seen in the list on filer1. You can safely remove it:

filer1> aggr destroy aggr1

NetApp VSC Single File Restore Explained

August 5, 2013

netapp_dpIn one of my previous posts I spoke about three basic types of NetApp Virtual Storage Console restores: datastore restore, VM restore and backup mount. The last and the least used feature, but very underrated, is the Single File Restore (SFR), which lets you restore single files from VM backups. You can do the same thing by mounting the backup, connecting vmdk to VM and restore files. But SFR is a more convenient way to do this.


SFR is pretty much an out-of-the-box feature and is installed with VSC. When you create an SFR session, you specify an email address, where VSC sends an .sfr file and a link to Restore Agent. Restore Agent is a separate application which you install into VM, where you want restore files to (destination VM). You load the .sfr file into Restore Agent and from there you are able to mount source VM .vmdks and map them to OS.

VSC uses the same LUN cloning feature here. When you click “Mount” in Restore Agent – LUN is cloned, mapped to an ESX host and disk is connected to VM on the fly. You copy all the data you want, then click “Dismount” and LUN clone is destroyed.

Restore Types

There are two types of SFR restores: Self-Service and Limited Self-Service. The only difference between them is that when you create a Self-Service session, user can choose the backup. With Limited Self-Service, backup is chosen by admin during creation of SFR session. The latter one is used when destination VM doesn’t have connection to SMVI server, which means that Remote Agent cannot communicate with SMVI and control the mount process. Similarly, LUN clone is deleted only when you delete the SFR session and not when you dismount all .vmdks.

There is another restore type, mentioned in NetApp documentation, which is called Administartor Assisted restore. It’s hard to say what NetApp means by that. I think its workflow is same as for Self-Service, but administrator sends the .sfr link to himself and do all the job. And it brings a bit of confusion, because there is an “Admin Assisted” column on SFR setup tab. And what it actually does, I believe, is when Port Group is configured as Admin Assisted, it forces SFR to create a Limited Self-Service session every time you create an SFR job. You won’t have an option to choose Self-Assisted at all. So if you have port groups that don’t have connectivity to VSC, check the Admin Assisted option next to them.


Keep in mind that SFR doesn’t support VM’s with IDE drives. If you try to create SFR session for VMs which have IDE virtual hard drives connected, you will see all sorts of errors.

Monitoring ESX Storage Queues

July 30, 2013

6a00d8341c328153ef01774354e2fd970d-500wiQueue Limits

I/O data goes through several storage queues on its way to disk drives. VMware is responsible for VM queue, LUN queue and HBA queue. VM and LUN queues are usually equal to 32 operations. It means that each ESX host at any moment can have no more than 32 active operations to a LUN. Same is true for VMs. Each VM can have as many as 32 active operations to a datastore. And if multiple VMs share the same datastore, their combined I/O flow can’t go over the 32 operations limit (per LUN queue for QLogic HBAs has been increased from 32 to 64 operations in vSphere 5). HBA queue size is much bigger and can hold several thousand operations (4096 for QLogic, however I can see in my config that driver is configured with 1014 operations).

Queue Monitoring

You can monitor storage queues of ESX host from the console. Run “esxtop”, press “d” to view disk adapter stats, then press “f” to open fields selection and add Queue Stats by pressing “d”.

AQLEN column will show the queue depth of the storage adapter. CMDS/s is the real-time number of IOPS. DAVG is the latency which comes from the frame traversing through the “driver – HBA – fabric – array SP” path and should be less than 20ms. Otherwise it means that storage is not coping. KAVG shows the time which operation spent in hypervisor kernel queue and should be less than 2ms.

Press “u” to see disk device statistics. Press “f” to open the add or remove fields dialog and select Queue Stats “f”. Here you’ll see a number of active (ACTV) and queue (QUED) operations per LUN.  %USD is the queue load. If you’re hitting 100 in %USD and see operations under QUED column, then again it means that your storage cannot manage the load an you need to redistribute your workload between spindles.

Some useful documents:

Mounting VMware Virtual Disks

June 11, 2013

H_Storage04There are millions of posts on that topic all over the Internet. Just another repetition mostly for myself.

VMware has Virtual Disk Development Kit (VDDK) which is more of an API for backup software vendors. But it includes a handy tool called vmware-mount, which gives you an ability to mount VMware virtual disks (.vmdk) from wherever you want.

Download VDDK from VMware site. It’s free. And then run vmware-mount with the following keys:

> vmware-mount driveletter: “[vmfs_datastore] vmname/diskname.vmdk” /i:”datacentername/vm/vmname” /h:vcname /u:username /s:password

Choose drive letter, specify vmdk path, inventory path to VM (put ‘vm’ in lowercase between datacenter and vm name, upper case will give you an error) and vCenter or ESXi host name.

Note however, that you can mount only vmdks from powered off VMs. But there is a workaround. You can mount vmdk from online VMs in read-only mode if you make a VM snapshot. Then the original vmdk won’t be locked by ESXi server and you will be able to mount it.

To unmount a vmdk run:

> vmware-mount diskletter: /d

There are also several GUI tools to mount vmdks. But vmware-mount is enough for me.

Limiting the number of concurrent storage vMotions

June 6, 2013

vmw-dgrm-vsphr-087b-diagram1VMware vCenter allows several concurrent storage vMotions on a datastore. But it can negatively impact your production environment, by hammering your underlying storage. If you want to migrate several virtual machines to another datastore, it’s much safer to do that one by one. But it’s too much manual work.

There is a simple way to limit the number of concurrent storage vMotions by configuring vCenter advanced settings. There are a group of resource management parameters for network, host and datastore limits which apply to vMotion and Storage vMotion. They are called limits and costs. For ESXi 4.1 default datastore limit for migration with Storage vMotion is 128. And datastore resource cost for Storage vMotion is 16 (defaults for other versions of ESXi can be found here: Limits on Simultaneous Migrations). It basically means that 8 concurrent storage vMotions is allowed for each datastore. So to allow only one storage vMotion at a time you can either change the limit to 16 or cost to 128.

Lets say we choose to change the cost to 128. There are two ways of doing it. The first one is to edit vCenter vpxd.cfg file and add the following stanza between <vpxd></vpxd> tags:


The second simpler one way is to edit vCenter -> Administration -> vCenter Server Settings -> Advanced Settings and add config.vpxd.ResourceManager.CostPerEsx41SVmotion key with value equal to 128. You will probably need to reboot vCenter after that.

There is one moment, however. If you migrate VMs from say 3 source datastores to 1 destination, then 3 concurrent storage vMotion will kick off. I do not know what is the reason for that, but that’s what I found from the practice.