Posts Tagged ‘vSphere’

vSphere Host Profiles: Using Customization Files

February 15, 2020

Overview

If you own vSphere Enterprise Plus licences, using vSphere Host Profiles is a no brainer. Even if you rarely add ESXi hosts to your cluster, why configure them by hand if you can do that by a few mouse clicks in a fast and consistent manner.

Host profiles are usually created by setting up one ESXi host according to your requirements and then capturing its state. Some settings in a host profile are unique to each host, which include the host name, VMkernel adapter network settings, user name for joining host to AD, etc. When you apply your profile to a new unprepared host, vCenter will ask you to specify these settings. This step is called host customization.

You can either type these settings manually or if you want to take your automation game one step further, you can use a customization file, which is simply the list of setting in .csv format.

This feature was first introduced in vSphere 6.5 and official documentation is a bit light on this topic. Purpose of this post is to close this gap by demonstrating where to find this configuration option.

Create

To create a customization file, right click on a ESXi host and choose Host Profiles > Export Host Customizations. This host has to have host profile already applied to it (including all customization settings), otherwise this option will be grayed out. This can be the first host you used to capture the original host profile.

Open .csv file in your editor of choice and change settings accordingly. If you adding multiple hosts to your cluster, you can write a script to generate multiple copies of this file for each new ESXi host you’re adding.

Apply

Host customization settings are specified (manually or using a customization file) when host profile is being applied to the host. So first right click on the host and choose Host Profiles > Attach Host Profile. Then on Customize hosts page import customization file by clicking on the Browse button:

Note: If you hit the “Host settings validation failed” error after applying host customizations, read my blog article here that explains the problem.

Conclusion

Pretty simple, isn’t it? Key is to not forget that customization file can be specified either when you are applying host profile or, alternatively, you can skip host customization step and use Host Profiles > Edit Host Customizations later. For host that doesn’t have a host profile associated with it, Edit Host Customizations option will always be greyed out.

Using VMware SDK Support

December 5, 2019

I predict this post will get a single hit over its lifetime, but if it helps at least one person desperately trying to find out how to open a VMware SDK support request, that’s good enough for me.

Quick Overview

Not everyone knows, but VMware, along with support for vSphere, NSX and all the other software products, also provides SDK and API support. If you are a partner developing a solution that integrates with a VMware product or even a customer writing your own vSphere plug-in using vSphere Management SDK, you can reach out to VMware for help.

It’s a paid service. You can find detailed description of it on its landing page here: VMware SDK and API Support

How to open SRs

One thing that is not very obvious about the SDK support is how to open support requests if you’re a customer. The goal of this short post is to demonstrate where to find it on VMware support portal:

  1. Log in to My VMware portal using your account credentials
  2. Under the Support section click Get Support
  3. On the opened page, under “Technical” category, choose your issue type, such as “Fault/Crash”
  4. In the provided list of Supported Products expand SDK Support Services
  5. Select VMware SDK Support
  6. Click Continue and proceed with describing your issue and opening the ticket, as usual

This is a screenshot of what it will look like, if your account has been entitled to SDK support:

If you’re working with SpringSource, there is also a range of support option under the SprinSource Open Source Support sub-category.

Conclusion

I’ve had only brief interaction with SDK Support team, but can only say good things about them. One of the examples was a question I had on parameter specifications of a particular vSphere Web Management SDK function and I not only got an answer to my question, but I was also provided with code snippets, which I didn’t even ask for. So if you are serious about using VMware SDKs and think you may require technical support, I can certainly recommend this service.

Host Profile Customization Issue

November 1, 2019

vSphere Host Profiles is a great feature for consistent ESXi host configuration and compliance checks, but can at times be flaky.

I’ve noticed an issue recently with Host Profiles in vSphere 6.7, where after providing host customization values the following error is shown in vSphere Web Client:

The “Update host customizations” operation failed for the entity with the following error message.

Host settings validation failed.

This is how the error message looks like in the client:

Even though it’s a bit annoying, I found it to be a furphy. Customizations are actually saved successfully and the error can be ignored. You can find the following messages in ESXi host’s /var/log/syslog.log file, which confirm that it works:


INFO: Execute completed
INFO: Validating AnswerFile Status1 = success
INFO: Cleaned up Host Configuration
INFO: GetAnswerFile completed

I’ve also found that this error doesn’t appear when you provide host customization values first time straight after attaching a profile to the host. Only when you update them. It also doesn’t show up in HTML5, only Web Client. I guess, one more reason to switch to HTML5.

Hope this blog post helps someone who searched in Google, but couldn’t find any information related to this error message.

vSphere 6.0 REST API: A History Lesson

August 23, 2019

I’m glad to see how VMware products are becoming more and more automation-focused these days. NSX has always had rich REST API capabilities, which I can’t complain about. And vSphere is now starting to catch up. vSphere 6.5 was the first release where REST API started getting much more attention. See these official blog posts for example:

But not many people know that vSphere 6.5 wasn’t the first release where REST API became available. Check this forum thread on VMTN “Does vCenter 6.0 support RESTFUL api?”:

I think its only supported for 6.5 as below blogs has a customer asked the same question and reply is no..

It’s not entirely true, even though I know why the OP got a “No” answer. Let me explain.

vSphere 6.0 REST API

VMware started to make first steps towards REST API starting from 6.0 release. If you have a legacy vSphere 6.0 environment you can play with, you can easily test that by opening the following URL:

https://vcenter/rest/com/vmware/vapi/metadata/cli/command

You will get a long list of commands available in 6.0 release:

It may look impressive, but if you look closely you will quickly notice that they are all Content Library or Tagging related. Quote from the referenced blog post:

VMware vCenter has received some new extensions to its REST based API. In vSphere 6.0, this API set provides the ability to manage the Content Library and Tagging but now also includes the ability to manage and configure the vCenter Server Appliance (VCSA) based functionality and basic VM management.

That is right, in vSphere 6.0 REST API is very limited, you won’t get inventory data, backup or update API. All you can do is manage Content Library and Tagging, which, frankly, is not very practical.

Making REST API Calls

If Content Library and Tagging use cases are applicable to you or you are just feeling adventurous this is an example of how you can make a call to vSphere 6.0 REST API via Postman.

All calls are POST-based and action (get, list, create, etc.) is specified as a parameter, so pay close attention to request format.

First you will need to generate authentication token by making a POST call to https://vcenter/rest/com/vmware/cis/session, using “Basic Auth” for Authorization and you will get a token in response:

Then change Authorization to “No auth” and specify the token in “vmware-api-session-id” header in your next call. In this example I’m getting a list of all content libraries (you will obviously get an empty response if you haven’t actually created one):

Some commands require a body, to determine the body format use the following POST call to https://vcenter/rest/com/vmware/vapi/metadata/cli/command?~action=get, with the following body in JSON format:

{
	"identity": {
        "name": "get",
        "path": "com.vmware.content.library"
	}
}

Where “path” is the operation and “name” is the action from the https://vcenter/rest/com/vmware/vapi/metadata/cli/command call above.

If you’re looking for more detailed information, I found this blog post by Mitch Tulloch very useful:

Conclusion

There you have it. vSphere 6.0 does support REST API, it’s just not very useful, that’s why no one talks about it.

This blog post won’t help you if you are stuck in a stone age and need to manage vSphere 6.0 via REST API, but it at least gives you a definitive answer of whether REST API is supported in vSphere 6.0 and what you can do with it.

If you do find yourself in such situation, I recommend to fall back on PowerCLI, if possible.

[SOLVED] Migrating vCenter Notifications

January 6, 2018

Why is this a problem?

VMware upgrades and migrations still comprise a large chunk of what I do in my job. If it is an in-place upgrade it is often more straightforward. The main consideration is making sure all compatibility checks are made. But if it is a rebuild, things get a bit more complicated.

Take for example a vCenter Server to vCenter Server Appliance migration. If you are migrating between 5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 you are covered by the vCenter Server Migration Tool. Recently I came across a customer using vSphere 5.1 (yes, it is not as uncommon as you might think). vCenter Server Migration Tool does not support migration from vSphere 5.1, which is fair enough, as it is end of support was August 2016. But as a result, you end up being on your own with your upgrade endeavours and have to do a lot of the things manually. One of such things is migrating vCenter notifications.

You can go and do it by hand. Using a few PowerCLI commands you can list the currently configured notifications and then recreate them on the new vCenter. But knowing how clunky and slow this process is, I doubt you are looking forward to spend half a day configuring each of the dozens notifications one by one by hand (I sure am not).

I offer an easy solution

You may have seen a comic over on xkcd called “Is It Worth The Time?“. Which gives you an estimate of how long you can work on making a routine task more efficient before you are spending more time than you save (across five years). As an example, if you can save one hour by automating a task that you do monthly, even if you spend two days on automating it, you will still brake even in five years.

Knowing how often I do VMware upgrades, it is well worth for me to invest time in automating it by scripting. Since you do not do upgrades that often, for you it is not, so I wrote this script for you.

If you simply want to get the job done, you can go ahead and download it from my GitHub page here (you will also need VMware PowerCLI installed on your machine for it to work) and then run it like so:

.\copy-vcenter-alerts-v1.0.ps1 -SourceVcenter old-vc.acme.com -DestinationVcenter new-vc.acme.com

Script includes help topics, that you can view by running the following command:

Get-Help -full .\copy-vcenter-alerts-v1.0.ps1

Or if you are curious, you can read further to better understand how script works.

How does this work?

First of all, it is important to understand the terminology used in vSphere:

  • Alarm trigger – a set of conditions that must be met for an alarm warning and alert to occur.
  • Alarm action – operations that occur in response to triggered alarms. For example, email notifications.

Script takes source and destination vCenter IP addresses or host names as parameters and starts by retrieving the list of existing alerts. Then it compares alert definitions and if alert doesn’t exist on the destination, it will be skipped, so be aware of that. Script will show you a warning and you will be able to make a decision about what to do with such alert later.

Then for each of the source alerts, that exists on the destination, script recreates actions, with exact same triggers. Trigger settings, such as repeats (enabled/disabled) and trigger state changes (green to yellow, yellow to red, etc) are also copied.

Script will not attempt to recreate an action that already exists, so feel free to run the script multiple times, if you need to.

What script does not do

  1. Script does not copy custom alerts – if you have custom alert definitions, you will have to recreate them manually. It was not worth investing time in such feature at this stage, as custom alerts are rare and even if encountered, there us just a handful, that can be moved manually.
  2. Only email notification actions are supported – because they are the most common. If you use other actions, like SNMP traps, let me know and maybe I will include them in the next version.

PowerCLI cmdlets used

These are some of the useful VMware PowerCLI cmdlets I used to write the script:

  • Get-AlarmDefinition
  • Get-AlarmAction
  • Get-AlarmActionTrigger
  • New-AlarmAction
  • New-AlarmActionTrigger

Dell Force10 Part 2: VLT Basics

July 10, 2016

dell-force10Last time I made a blog post on initial configuration of Force10 switches, which you can find here. There I talked about firmware upgrade and basic features, such as STP and Flow Control. In this blog post I would like to touch on such a key feature of Force10 switches as Virtual Link Trunking (VLT).

VLT is Force10’s implementation of Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation Group (MLAG), which is similar to Virtual Port Channels (vPC) on Cisco Nexus switches. The goal of VLT is to let you establish one aggregated link to two physical network switches in a loop-free topology. As opposed to two standalone switches, where this is not possible.

You could say that switch stacking gives you similar capabilities and you would  be right. The issue with stacked switches, though, is that they act as a single switch not only from the data plane point of view, but also from the control plane point of view. The implication of this is that if you need to upgrade a switch stack, you have to reboot both switches at the same time, which brings down your network. If you have an iSCSI or NFS storage array connected to the stack, this may cause trouble, especially in enterprise environments.

With VLT you also have one data plane, but individual control planes. As a result, each switch can be managed and upgraded separately without full network downtime.

VLT Terminology

Virtual Link Trunking uses the following set of terms:

  • VLT peer – one of the two switches participating in VLT (you can have a maximum of two switches in a VLT domain)
  • VLT interconnect (VLTi) – interconnect link between the two switches to synchronize the MAC address tables and other VLT-related data
  • VLT backup link – heartbeat link to send keep alive messages between the two switches, it’s also used to identify switch state if VLTi link fails
  • VLT – this is the name of the feature – Virtual Link Trunking, as well as a VLT link aggregation group – Virtual Link Trunk. We will call aggregated link a VLT LAG to avoid ambiguity.
  • VLT domain – grouping of all of the above

VLT Topology

This’s what a sample VLT domain looks like. S4048-ON switches have six 40Gb QSFP+ ports, two of which we use for a VLT interconnect. It’s recommended to use a static LAG for VLTi.

basic_vlt

Two 1Gb links are used for VLT backup. You can use switch out-of-band management ports for this. Four 10Gb links form a VLT LAG to the upstream core switch.

Use Cases

So where is this actually helpful? Vast majority of today’s environments are virtualized and do not require LAGs. vSphere already uses teaming on vSwitch uplinks for traffic distribution across all network ports by default. There are some use cases in VMware environments, where you can create a LAG to a vSphere Distributed Switch for faster link failure convergence or improved packet switching. Unless you have a really large vSphere environment this is generally not required, but you may use this option later on if required. Read Chris Wahl’s blog post here for more info.

Where VLT is really helpful is in building a loop-free network topology in your datacenter. See, all your vSphere hosts are connected to both Force10 switches for redundancy. Since traffic comes to either of the switches depending on which uplink is being picked on a ESXi host, you have to make sure that VMs on switch 1 are able to communicate to VMs on switch 2. If all you had in your environment were two Force10 switches, you would establish a LAG between the two and be done with it. But if your network topology is a bit larger than this and you have at least a single additional core switch/router in your environment you’d be faced with the following dilemma. How can you ensure efficient traffic switching in your network without creating loops?

stp_loop

You can no longer create a LAG between the two Force10 switches, as it will create a loop. Your only option is to keep switches connected only to the core and not to each other. And by doing that you will cause all traffic from VMs on switch 1 destined to VMs on switch 2 and vise versa to traverse the core.

east_west_traffic

And that’s where VLT comes into play. All east-west traffic between servers is contained within the VLT domain and doesn’t need to traverse the core. As shown above, if we didn’t use VLT, traffic from one switch to another would have to go from switch 1 to core and then back from core to switch 2. In a VLT domain traffic between the switches goes directly form switch 1 to switch 2 using VLTi.

Conclusion

That’s a brief introduction to VLT theory. In the next few posts we will look at how exactly VLT is configured and map theory to practice.

vSphere SDRS Design Considerations

June 26, 2016

data storageIf you happen to have your vSphere cluster to be licensed with Enterprise Plus edition, you may be aware of some of the advanced storage management features it includes, such as Storage DRS and Profile-Driven Storage.

These two features work together to let you optimise VM distribution between multiple VMware datastores from capability, capacity and latency perspective, much like DRS does for memory and compute. But they have some interoperability limitations, which I want to discuss in this post.

Datastore Clusters

In simple terms, datastore cluster is a collection of multiple datastores, which can be seen as a single entity from VM provisioning perspective.

datastore_cluster

VMware poses certain requirements for datastore clustes, but in my opinion the most important one is this:

Datastore clusters must contain similar or interchangeable datastores.

In other words, all of the datastores within a datastore cluster should have the same performance properties. You should not mix datastores provisioned on SSD tier with datastores on SAS and SATA tier and vise versa. The reason why is simple. Datastore clusters are used by SDRS to load-balance VMs between the datastores of a datastore cluster. DRS balances VMs based on datastore capacity and I/O latency only and is not storage capability aware. If you had SSD, SAS and SATA datastores all under the same cluster, SDRS would simply move all VMs to SSD-backed datastores, because it has the lowest latency and leave SAS and SATA empty, which makes little sense.

Design Decision 1:

  • If you have several datastores with the same performance characteristics, combine them all in a datastore cluster. Do not mix datastores from different arrays or array storage tiers in one datastore cluster. Datastore clusters is not a storage tiering solution.

Storage DRS

As already mentioned, SDRS is a feature, which when enabled on a datastore cluster level, lets you automatically (or manually) distribute VMs between datastores based on datastore storage utilization and I/O latency basis. VM placement recommendations and datastore maintenance mode are amongst other useful features of SDRS.

storage_drs

Quite often SDRS is perceived as a feature that can work with Profile-Driven Storage to enforce VM Storage Policy compliance. One of the scenarios, that is often brought up is what if there’s a VM with multiple .vmdk disks. Each disk has a certain storage capability. Mistakenly one of the disks has been storage vMotion’ed to a datastore, which does not meet the storage capability requirements. Can SDRS automatically move the disk back to a compliant datastore or notify that VM is not compliant? The answer is – no. SDRS does not take storage capabilities into account and make decisions only based on capacity and latency. This may be implemented in future versions, but is not supported in vSphere 5.

Design Decision 2:

  • Use datastore clusters in conjunction with Storage DRS to get the benefit of VM load-balancing and placement recommendations. SDRS is not storage capability aware and cannot enforce VM Storage Policy compliance.

Profile-Driven Storage

So if SDRS and datastore clusters are not capable of supporting  multiple tiers of storage, then what does? Profile-Driven Storage is aimed exactly for that. You can assign user-defined or system-defined storage capabilities to a datastore and then create a VM Storage Policy and assign it to a VM. VM Storage Policy includes the list of required storage capabilities and only those datastores that mach them, will be suggested as a target for the VM that is assigned to that policy.

You can create storage capabilities manually, such as SSD, SAS, SATA. Or more abstract, such as Bronze, Silver and Gold and assign them to corresponding datastores. Or you can leverage VASA, which automatically assigns corresponding storage capabilities. Below is an example of a datastore connected from a Dell Compellent storage array.

datastore_capabilities

You can then use storage capabilities from the VASA provider to create VM Storage Policies and assign them to VMs accordingly.

VASA.jpg

Design Decision 3:

  • If you have more than one datastore storage type, use Profile-Driven Storage to enforce VM placement based on VM storage requirements. VASA can simplify storage capabilities management.

Conclusion

If all of your datastores have the same performance characteristics, such as a number of LUNs auto-tiered on the storage array side, then one SDRS-enabled datastore cluster is a perfect solution for you.

But if your storage design is slightly more complex and you have datastores with different performance characteristics, such as SSD, SAS and SATA, leverage Profile-Driven Storage to control VM placement and enforce compliance. Just make sure to use a separate cluster for each tier of storage and you will get the most benefit out of vSphere Storage Policy-Based Management.

vDS Health Check: Useful, but Overlooked

June 11, 2016

healthcheckAs of June 30, 2016 vSphere Enterprise licence will no longer be available. As more and more customers start moving to Enterprise Plus licencing scheme, we will see wider adoption of Enterprise Plus features, such as vSphere Distributed Switch, SIOC, NIOC and Storage DRS.

Therefore, there will be a continuing demand in better coverage of these features and I want to start blogging about them more to meet this demand. And the first blog will be about one of the hidden gems – vSphere distributed switch Health Check.

Feature overview

The reason why I picked health check specifically is because it’s very helpful when troubleshooting connectivity issues on vSphere distributed switch uplinks. But at the same time it’s lesser known, because it’s buried deep in vDS setting section, available only from the Web Client and is disabled by default.

vDS health check is capable of doing the following tests:

  • VLAN and MTU
  • Teaming and failover

By sending broadcasts from one link and receiving them from another, vDS health check can determine if a VLAN is not allowed on a trunk or there is an MTU mismatch. In the same way if you’re using LACP, vDS will alert you if there are any port channel misconfigurations.

Usage example

Before you can start using vDS health check you need to enable it in vSphere Web Client > Networking > dvSwitch > Manage > Settings > Health check. Click on the Edit button and enable both tests.

enable_healthcheck

Now if you go to the Monitor tab and click on the Health section, after a few minutes of initial checks you will see a per host breakdown of identified issues.

healthcheck_results

In my case I was able to immediately determine that VLAN 120 was not trunked on the physical switch. The port group this VLAN ID was assigned to had no VMs at the time. And the issues was fixed proactively, before it could start causing issues.

vlan_mismatch

Possible use cases

The above example is a very straightforward one. VLAN was not added to the trunk port on the physical switch on any of the uplink ports and the issue would’ve been determined right after the first VM was added to the port group.

But what if the VLAN was missing only on one of the host’s uplinks? VM would be running fine on another host and after a vMotion (during a potential maintenance work on that host) it could get migrated to the affected host and lose connectivity. Result – impact to production workloads and time wasted on troubleshooting.

MTU checks are particularly helpful for the environments where a non-standard MTU size is used, such as 9000 byte jumbo frames for iSCSI. It’s important for MTU to match on both vDS and physical switch. This check confirms exactly that.

And last but not least, teaming and failover tests can be useful when you’re using LACP capability of vDS and one of the uplinks is not added to the port channel configuration, which can also cause some nasty issues.

Conclusion

In my opinion vSphere Distributed Switch Health Check is one of those valuable, but overlooked features. I suggest to give it a go if you haven’t already done so. It will notify you for any newly introduced network issues or who knows, maybe it will even find a network mismatch in your current vDS configuration.

Force10 and vSphere vDS Interoperability Issue

June 10, 2016

dell-force10Recently I had an opportunity to work with Dell FX2 platform from the design and delivery point of view. I was deploying a FX2s chassis with FC630 blades and FN410S 10Gb I/O aggregators.

I ran into an interesting interoperability glitch between Force10 and vSphere distributed switch when using LLDP. LLDP is an equivalent of Cisco CDP, but is an open standard. And it allows vSphere administrators to determine which physical switch port a given vSphere distributed switch uplink is connected to. If you enable both Listen and Advertise modes, network administrators can get similar visibility, but from the physical switch side.

In my scenario, when LLDP was enabled on a vSphere distributed switch, uplinks on all ESXi hosts started disconnecting and connecting back intermittently, with log errors similar to this:

Lost uplink redundancy on DVPorts: “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”. Physical NIC vmnic1 is down.

Network connectivity restored on DVPorts: “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”. Physical NIC vmnic1 is up

Uplink redundancy restored on DVPorts: “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”, “1549/03 4b 0b 50 22 3f d7 8f-28 3c ff dd a4 76 26 15”. Physical NIC vmnic1 is up

Issue Troubleshooting

FX2 I/O aggregator logs were reviewed for potential errors and the following log entries were found:

%STKUNIT0-M:CP %DIFFSERV-5-DSM_DCBX_PFC_PARAMETERS_MISMATCH: PFC Parameters MISMATCH on interface: Te 0/2

%STKUNIT0-M:CP %IFMGR-5-OSTATE_DN: Changed interface state to down: Te 0/2

%STKUNIT0-M:CP %IFMGR-5-OSTATE_UP: Changed interface state to up: Te 0/2

This clearly looks like some DCB negotiation issue between Force10 and the vSphere distributed switch.

Root Cause

Priority Flow Control (PFC) is one of the protocols from the Data Center Bridging (DCB) family. DCB was purposely built for converged network environments where you use 10Gb links for both Ethernet and FC traffic in the form of FCoE. In such scenario, PFC can pause Ethernet frames when FC is not having enough bandwidth and that way prioritise the latency sensitive storage traffic.

In my case NIC ports on Qlogic 57840 adaptors were used for 10Gb Ethernet and iSCSI and not FCoE (which is very uncommon unless you’re using Cisco UCS blade chassis). So the question is, why Force10 switches were trying to negotiate FCoE? And what did it have to do with enabling LLDP on the vDS?

The answer is simple. LLDP not only advertises the port numbers, but also the port capabilities. Data Center Bridging Exchange Protocol (DCBX) uses LLDP when conveying capabilities and configuration of FCoE features between neighbours. This is why enabling LLDP on the vDS triggered this. When Force10 switches determined that vDS uplinks were CNA adaptors (which was in fact true, I was just not using FCoE) it started to negotiate FCoE using DCBX. Which didn’t really go well.

Solution

The easiest solution to this problem is to disable DCB on the Force10 switches using the following command:

# conf t
# no dcb enable

Alternatively you can try and disable FCoE from the ESXi end by using the following commands from the host CLI:

# esxcli fcoe nic list
# esxcli fcoe nic disable -n vmnic0

Once FCoE has been disabled on all NICs, run the following command and you should get an empty list:

# esxcli fcoe adapter list

Conclusion

It is still not clear why PFC mismatch would cause vDS uplinks to start flapping. If switch cannot establish a FCoE connection it should just ignore it. Doesn’t seem to be the case on Force10. So if you run into a similar issue, simply disable DCB on the switches and it should fix it.

History of vSphere Storage Size Limitations

June 5, 2016

data-storageThis seems like a straightforward topic. If you are on vSphere 6 you can create VMFS datastores and VM disks as big as 64TB (62TB for VM disks to be precise). The reality is, not all customers are running the latest and greatest for various reasons. The most common one is concerns about reliability. vSphere 6 is still at version 6.0. Once vSphere 6.1 comes out we will see wider adoption. At this stage I see various versions of vSphere 5 in the field. And even vSphere 4 at times, which is officially not supported by VMware since May 2015. So it’s not surprising I still get this question, what are the datastore and disk size limits for various vSphere versions?

Datastore size limit

The biggest datastore size for both VMFS3 and VMFS5 is 64TB. What you need to know is, VMFS3 file system uses MBR partition style, which is limited to 2TB. The way VMFS3 overcomes this limitation is by using extents. To extend VMFS3 partition to 64TB you would need 32 x 2TB LUNs on the storage array. VMFS5 file system has GPT partition style and can be extended to 64TB by expanding one underlying LUN without using extents, which is a big plus.

VMFS3 datastores are rare these days, unless you’re still on vSphere 4. The only consideration here is whether your vSphere 5 environment was a greenfield build. If the answer is yes, then all your datastores are VMFS5 already. If environment was upgraded from vSphere 4, you need to make sure all datastores have been upgraded (or better recreated) to VMFS5 as well. If the upgrade wasn’t done properly you may still have some VMFS3 datastores in your environment.

Disk size limit

For .vmdk disks the limitation had been 2TB for a long time, until VMware increased the limit to 62TB in vSphere 5.5. So if all of your datastores are VMFS5, this means you still have 2TB  .vmdk limitation if you’re on 5.0 or 5.1.

For VMFS3 file system you also had an option to choose block size – 1MB, 2MB, 4MB or 8MB. 2TB .vmdk disks were supported only with the 8MB block size. The default was 1MB. So if you chose the default block size during datastore creation you were limited to 256GB .vmdk disks.

The above limits led to proliferation of Raw Device Mapping disks in many pre 5.5 environments. Those customers who needed VM disks bigger than 2TB had to use RDMs, as physical RDMs starting from VMFS5 supported 64TB (pRDMs on VMFS3 were still limited to 2TB).

This table summarises storage configuration maximums for vSphere version 4.0 to 6.0:

vSphere Datastore Size VMDK Size pRDM Size
4.0 64TB 2TB 2TB
4.1 64TB 2TB 2TB
5.0 64TB 2TB 64TB
5.1 64TB 2TB 64TB
5.5 64TB 62TB 64TB
6.0 64TB 64TB 64TB

Summary

The bottom line is, if you’re on vSphere 5.5 or 6.0 and all your datastores are VMFS5 you can forget about the legacy .vmdk disk size limitations. And if you’re not on vSphere 5.5 you should consider upgrading as soon as possible, as vSphere 5.0 and 5.1 are coming to an end of support on 24 of August 2016.